Engineering Solutions

LandIng Aquaculture specialises in engineering for land-based farms and recirculation systems, and the professionals that make up the company are aquaculture experts with wide knowledge of the sector.

LandIng offers three engineering packages which give the client exact control over the development of the project. If the client is after some concept drawings to promote his idea, LandIng can provide cautiously accurate and visually attractive concepts for a reasonable price. If there is a level of detail required to kickoff the project, liaise with contractors, permitting authorities, funding bodies or investors, the basic package will provide all the input needed. Lastly, LandIng can take care of the whole project development process. LandIng will then take care of the planning, supervision and quality control of the construction work, as well as the startup of the farm and ramping up of production.

1.   Concept development (as per LandIng’s concept engineering package)

a. Rough production plan

To establish the size of a farm, the production target, fish sizes going in and out and the number of batches must be known, along with a growth model of the fish species of interest. A rough production plan aims to develop a fish growth model and an overview of the farm’s production cycle so as to set up its basic size and layout.

b. Basic system layout

Describes the size and number of tanks, the different fish holding rooms (quarantine, hatching, broodstock, live feed, nurseries, grow-out and treatment/depuration. The basic layout also include water filtration rooms, offices, feed stores, workshops, etc.

c. Basic equipment specifications

Includes a list and description of all the main RAS technologies that will likely be employed in the project. This equipment includes (and it is not limited to) pumping systems (for water and air), solids removal, biological filtration, gas transfer, disinfection and fish holding tanks.

d. Hydraulic design concept

Refers to a brief description of proposed water ways and pipe networks required to move the process waters between the tanks and RAS modules. It also includes concepts for farm water intakes and water discharges.

2.   Engineering services (as per LandIng’s basic engineering package)

a. Production plan preparation

The production strategy greatly influences the layout and size of a RAS. In a production plan the consequences of this strategy are modelled to find how stocking densities, total biomass and harvesting vary through time. According to the client’s feedback, a production plan and up to three production strategies for the planned facilities can be proposed. A production plan starts with the generation of a mathematical model of the growth and feed utilisation of the desired species. After this, simulations of different production scenarios are computed, using different fingerling sizes, batches, stocking strategies and harvesting strategies.

b. Calculation of organic loads, water quality parameters and filtration requirement.

In order to decide what filtration is needed, water quality parameters are set. Then, based on the growth model and production plan, the feed input into the system can be computed and with it, the influence on water quality. Knowing the extent of the water quality changes and the safe water quality limits for the species under production, filtration and water change requirements can defined. For this section, a report on organic loads, mass balances (for dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and solids), filtration efficiencies needed and water flows required through the filtration devices (limiting flows) will be delivered.

c. Basic heat balance and basic HVAC specifications.

Fish and bacteria in a RAS produce heat as a result of their metabolism, and require a certain temperature to obtain optimal growth. Electric equipment such as pumps also transfers heat to the water. Basic modelling of all the heat gains caused by feed addition and equipment are performed in this section. Heat losses due to water exchanges and venting of gases are included. Included in this section is the modelling of conductive heat losses, convective heat loss through a building or the calculation of any possible heat recovery systems.

d. System layout: tanks, water treatment, hydraulic works.

Once the production plan and the filtration and water flow required to keep the fish in good condition are calculated we can define the tankage, water distribution networks and location of the filtration equipment. System layout results will be delivered in the form of a report supported with CAD drawings, pipe network calculations/specifications and specifications for any concrete preparation works needed to build fish tanks, culverts, channels, sumps, header tanks, etc.

e. Equipment specifications/procurement plan (incl. monitoring system and/or farm automation)

Once the filtration requirements are known for a given production plan, a procurement plan that includes all the equipment to run the farm is performed. The procurement plan will have information on the quantity, size, requirements and suppliers for the following pieces of equipment:

i. Pumps
ii. Pipework
iii. Fittings, valves, flow controllers, culvert gate valves
iv. Mechanical filtration
v. Biological filtration media
vi. Tanks
vii. Ozonation equipment
viii. UV sterilisation lamps
ix. Fibreglass/GRP products such as custom-made or prefabricated vessels such as saturation
cones, degassing columns, settling cones, etc.
x. HVAC equipment
xi. Fans, blowers and compressors for aeration and degassing
xii. Oxygen generators or Liquid Oxygen systems (LOX)
xiii. Aeration and oxygen transfer systems
xiv. Mortality collection
xv. Chemicals for pH adjustment, sludge flocculation or disinfection of large surfaces
xvi. Fish feed and feed storage
xvii. Monitoring and control equipment and farm automation systems.

f. Projections on use of water and electricity.

Calculated from a combination of the mass balance and organic loading calculations and the quantity, operation and efficiency of all electrical equipment used in the farm. The analysis is able to predict the water and energy use on a daily or weekly basis. From this analysis a ratio of kilowatt used per kg fish produced can be established, giving an idea on how energy efficient the farm is in relation to others in the sector. Another metric that can be calculated is the volume of new water required for every Kilogram of feed fed to the system in order to have an idea of the level of water recirculation the system has.

g. Projected labour requirements.

Depending on the farm layout, production and harvest plans and level of automation. From this analysis, a ratio of Kilogram of fish produced per man-hour can be computed. The labour requirements will also include suggestions on the type of job roles required to run the farm.

h. Architecture and civil works.

Includes the design of the industrial building, property development: topographic modifications, vehicle access points and connections to electricity, water and wastewater networks, if applicable.

i. Wastewater works, end of pipe treatment or farm upgrades to zero-exchange recirculation.

All the liquid emissions of the farm must be treated accordingly, especially if no connections to wastewater networks exist. “End of pipe treatment” refers to all the wastewater treatment solutions that must be designed and put in place to avoid violating wastewater discharge regulation and environmental impacts. The same type of technology can be employed so that all the treated effluents are safely recycled at the farm, thus increasing the level of water re-circulation to close to 100%.